AMB Volume 37, Issue 3, 2021 / Pages 135-142

Phytochemistry and Antibacterial Activities of Ficus exasperata Vahl. on Selected Clinical Isolates

Godwin O. O., Bello O. O., Thompson A. D., Idu M. D.

Ficus exasperata is a well-known plant because of its rough leaves commonly used as sandpaper in Nigeria. Ethnobotanically, F. exasperata has been reported useful in the management of cough, hemorrhoids and high blood pressure. However, this study aims to unearth the phytochemistry and antibacterial activities of F. exasperata root extracts against selected clinical isolates. Fresh roots of F. exasperata were harvested, washed, diced and air- dried in a cool shade for 3 weeks. Dried roots were pulverized into a powdery form using a kitchen blender. The powdered roots were macerated in ethanol and concentrated to dryness in a water bath at 40ÂșC. The eight clinical isolates used in this study were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, Proteus spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus faecalis. The antibacterial activities of the plant root extracts at 25, 50, 75, and 100 mg/ml after 24 hours of incubation were determined using agar well diffusion method. Gas-chromatography-Mass Spectrometry method was employed to analyze the phyto-constituents present in F. exasperata roots. The chromatogram from the phytochemical screening of F. exasperata root revealed the presence of twenty-five phyto-compounds with stigmast-4-en-3-one, a steroidal compound having the highest peak. The extract exerted inhibition zone, after 18-24 hours of incubation, on all tested clinical isolates except Shigella spp. at 100 mg/ml concentration. F. exasperata roots possess antibacterial potency which could be exploited for their efficacies in the treatment of related bacterial infectious diseases.

Keywords: antimicrobial, bacteria, Ficus exasperata, infectious diseases, phytocompounds

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